future results on a quarterly basis to determine whether the valuation allowances provided against deferred state tax assets should be increased or decreased, as future circumstances warrant. The Company anticipates that the education division may release valuation allowances against state deferred tax assets of approximately $22.7 million within the next 12 months, as the education division may generate positive operating results that would support the realization of these deferred tax assets.
The Company has established $8.2 million in valuation allowances against non-U.S. deferred tax assets, and, as stated above, $5.6 million of the non-U.S. valuation allowances relate to non-U.S. income tax loss carryforwards and $2.3 million relate to non-U.S. capital loss carryforwards. In addition, the Company has established $0.3 million in valuation allowances against other non-U.S. deferred tax assets.
Deferred U.S. Federal and state income taxes had historically been recorded with respect to undistributed earnings of investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries to the extent taxable dividend income would be recognized if such earnings were distributed. Deferred income taxes recorded with respect to undistributed earnings of investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries were recorded net of foreign tax credits with respect to such undistributed earnings estimated to be creditable against future U.S. Federal tax liabilities. At December 31, 2016, net U.S. Federal and state deferred income tax liabilities of approximately $23.8 million were recorded with respect to undistributed earnings of investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries based on the year-end position.
As noted above, the Company removed its net U.S. federal and state deferred tax liabilities on undistributed earnings of investments in non-U.S. subsidiaries because the Company does not expect to pay any transition tax under the Tax Act. Further, the Tax Act provides a 100% dividends received deduction for distributions from non-U.S. subsidiaries after December 31, 2017, subject to certain holding period requirements. The Tax Act establishes a new regime, the Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI) tax, that may currently subject to U.S. tax the operations of non-U.S. subsidiaries. The GILTI tax is imposed annually based on all current year non-U.S. operations starting January 1, 2018. The Company has not yet decided whether to elect to record the GILTI tax regime as either a deferred tax accounting item or as a periodic tax expense, and is not yet able to quantify the 2017 tax provision impact, if any. Accordingly, the Company has not made any tax provision adjustment with respect to the new GILTI tax in the 2017 tax provision.
The book value of investments in the stocks of non-U.S. subsidiaries exceeded the tax basis by approximately $113.2 million and $103.3 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016. If the investment in non-U.S. subsidiaries were held for sale instead of being held indefinitely, it is possible additional U.S. Federal and state tax liabilities may be recorded, but calculation of the tax due is not practicable.
The Company does not currently anticipate that within the next 12 months there will be any events requiring the establishment of any valuation allowances against U.S. Federal net deferred tax assets.
In the third quarter of 2016, the Company released $19.3 million of valuation allowance previously recorded on its operations in Australia, as the Company determined that it was more likely than not that the benefit of the net deferred tax assets would be realized based on improved operating results. The remaining valuation allowances established against non-U.S. deferred tax assets are recorded at the education division and other businesses. The remaining non-U.S. valuation allowances may increase or decrease within the next 12 months, based on operating results. As a result, the Company is unable to estimate the potential tax impact, given the uncertain operating environment. The Company will be monitoring future education division and other businesses’ operating results and projected future operating results on a quarterly basis to determine whether the valuation allowances provided against non-U.S. deferred tax assets should be increased or decreased, as future circumstances warrant.
During 2017, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) completed its examination of the Company’s 2013 tax return and the Company received a $9.7 million refund primarily related to capital loss carryforwards. The Company is no longer under examination by the IRS, and has not been contacted by the IRS about any further examinations. Barring the start of another IRS examination, the Company expects that the U.S. Federal statute of limitations for the 2013 and 2014 tax years will expire in July 2018 and September 2018, respectively. The Company files income tax returns with the U.S. Federal government and in various state, local and non-U.S. governmental jurisdictions, with the consolidated U.S. Federal tax return filing considered the only major tax jurisdiction.
The Company endeavors to comply with tax laws and regulations where it does business, but cannot guarantee that, if challenged, the Company’s interpretation of all relevant tax laws and regulations will prevail and that all tax benefits recorded in the financial statements will ultimately be recognized in full.