imposed by the Tax Act on unremitted non-U.S. subsidiary earnings. The Company estimates that unremitted non-U.S. subsidiary earnings, when distributed, will not be subject to tax except to the extent non-U.S. withholding taxes are imposed. Accordingly, the Company recorded net deferred tax benefits and a corresponding reduction in deferred tax liabilities of $28.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2017 with respect to unremitted non-U.S. subsidiary earnings. Approximately $1.6 million of deferred tax liabilities remain recorded on the books with respect to future non-U.S. withholding taxes the Company estimates may be imposed on future cash distributions. The Company estimates that it will not receive a future U.S. tax benefit for $2.5 million of existing foreign tax credit carryovers as a result of the Tax Act changes; accordingly, the Company established a full valuation allowance of $2.5 million at December 31, 2017.
In March 2016, the FASB issued new guidance that requires all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies related to stock-based compensation to be recognized in the income statement. The Company adopted the new guidance as of January 1, 2017. As a result of the adoption, the Company recognized $6.0 million in excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation in 2017. Excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies that occurred prior to January 1, 2017 were not recognized in the income statement, and were instead recorded to additional paid-in capital.
During 2016, certain intercompany loans were capitalized and other intercompany loans were designated as long-term investments, resulting in the write-off of $11.0 million in U.S. deferred tax assets. Also, the Company benefited from a favorable $5.6 million out of period deferred tax adjustment related to the KHE goodwill impairment recorded in the third quarter of 2015.
During 2015, in addition to the income tax provision for continuing operations presented above, the Company also recorded tax expense on discontinued operations. Income from discontinued operations and net (loss) gain on dispositions of discontinued operations have been reclassified from previously reported income from operations and reported separately as income from discontinued operations, net of tax. Tax expense of $27.8 million was recorded in discontinued operations in 2015.
Deferred income taxes consist of the following:
As of December 31
Accrued postretirement benefits
Other benefit obligations
State income tax loss carryforwards
U.S. Federal income tax loss carryforwards
U.S. Federal foreign income tax credit carryforwards
Non-U.S. income tax loss carryforwards
Non-U.S. capital loss carryforwards
Deferred Tax Assets
Deferred Tax Assets, Net
Property, plant and equipment
Prepaid pension cost
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities
Goodwill and other intangible assets
Non-U.S. withholding tax
Deferred Tax Liabilities
Deferred Income Tax Liabilities, Net
The Company has $635.1 million of state income tax net operating loss carryforwards available to offset future state taxable income. State income tax loss carryforwards, if unutilized, will start to expire approximately as follows:
2023 and after