effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company records net deferred tax assets to the extent that it believes these assets will more likely than not be realized. In making such determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial operations; this evaluation is made on an ongoing basis. In the event the Company were to determine that it was able to realize net deferred income tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, the Company would record an adjustment to the valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits. The Company records a liability for the difference between the benefit recognized and measured for financial statement purposes and the tax position taken or expected to be taken on the Company’s tax return. Changes in the estimate are recorded in the period in which such determination is made.
Foreign Currency Translation. Income and expense accounts of the Company’s non-United States operations where the local currency is the functional currency are translated into United States (U.S.) dollars using the current rate method, whereby operating results are converted at the average rate of exchange for the period, and assets and liabilities are converted at the closing rates on the period end date. Gains and losses on translation of these accounts are accumulated and reported as a separate component of equity and other comprehensive income. Gains and losses on foreign currency transactions, including foreign currency denominated intercompany loans on entities with a functional currency in U.S. dollars, are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Equity-Based Compensation. The Company measures compensation expense for awards settled in shares based on the grant date fair value of the award. The Company measures compensation expense for awards settled in cash, or that may be settled in cash, based on the fair value at each reporting date. The Company recognizes the expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award.
Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share is calculated under the two-class method. The Company treats restricted stock as a participating security due to its nonforfeitable right to dividends. Under the two-class method, the Company allocates to the participating securities their portion of dividends declared and undistributed earnings to the extent the participating securities may share in the earnings as if all earnings for the period had been distributed. Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the income available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is calculated similarly except that the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period includes the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of options and restricted stock issuable under the Company’s stock plans. The dilutive effect of potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method.
Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest. The Company’s mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interest represents the noncontrolling interest in Graham Healthcare Group (GHG) which is 90% owned. The minority shareholders have an option to put their shares to the Company starting in 2020 and are required to put a percentage of their shares in 2022 and 2024, with the remaining shares required to be put by the minority shareholders in 2026. Since the noncontrolling interest is mandatorily redeemable by 2026, it is reported as a noncurrent liability at December 31, 2017, in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company presents this liability at fair value, which is computed annually as the current redemption value. Changes in the redemption value are recorded as interest expense or income in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest. The Company’s redeemable noncontrolling interest represents the noncontrolling interest in Hoover, which is 97.72% owned. The minority shareholders have an option to put some of their shares to the Company starting in 2019 and the remaining shares starting in 2021. The Company has an option to buy the shares of minority shareholders starting in 2027. The Company presents the redeemable noncontrolling interest at the greater of its carrying amount or redemption value at the end of each reporting period in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the redemption value are recorded to capital in excess of par value in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Comprehensive Income. Comprehensive income consists of net income, foreign currency translation adjustments, the change in unrealized gains (losses) on investments in marketable equity securities, net changes in cash flow hedge and pension and other postretirement plan adjustments.
Discontinued Operations. A disposal of a component is reported as discontinued operations if the disposal represents a strategic shift that has or will have a major effect on the Company’s operations and financial results.