Evaluation of Long-Lived Assets. The recoverability of long-lived assets and finite-lived intangible assets is assessed whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded values may not be recoverable. A long-lived asset is considered to not be recoverable when the undiscounted estimated future cash flows are less than the asset’s recorded value. An impairment charge is measured based on estimated fair market value, determined primarily using estimated future cash flows on a discounted basis. Losses on long-lived assets to be disposed of are determined in a similar manner, but the fair market value would be reduced for estimated costs to dispose.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. Goodwill is the excess of purchase price over the fair value of identified net assets of businesses acquired. The Company’s intangible assets with an indefinite life are principally from trade names and trademarks, and FCC licenses. Amortized intangible assets are primarily student and customer relationships and trade names and trademarks, with amortization periods up to 10 years. Costs associated with renewing or extending intangible assets are insignificant and expensed as incurred.
The Company reviews goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets at least annually, as of November 30, for possible impairment. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for possible impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible asset below its carrying value. The Company tests its goodwill at the reporting unit level, which is an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. The Company initially assesses qualitative factors to determine if it is necessary to perform the goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible asset quantitative impairment review. The Company reviews the goodwill and indefinite-lived assets for impairment using the quantitative process if, based on its assessment of the qualitative factors, it determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying value, or if it decides to bypass the qualitative assessment. The Company reviews the carrying value of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets utilizing a discounted cash flow model, and, where appropriate, a market value approach is also utilized to supplement the discounted cash flow model. The Company makes assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows, discount rates, long-term growth rates and market values to determine the estimated fair value of each reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible asset. If these estimates or related assumptions change in the future, the Company may be required to record impairment charges.
Investments in Affiliates. The Company uses the equity method of accounting for its investments in and earnings or losses of affiliates that it does not control, but over which it exerts significant influence. The Company considers whether the fair values of any of its equity method investments have declined below their carrying values whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded values may not be recoverable. If the Company considered any such decline to be other than temporary (based on various factors, including historical financial results, product development activities and the overall health of the affiliate’s industry), a write-down would be recorded to estimated fair value.
Cost Method Investments. The Company uses the cost method of accounting for its minority investments in nonpublic companies where it does not have significant influence over the operations and management of the investee. Investments are recorded at the lower of cost or fair value as estimated by management. Charges recorded to write down cost method investments to their estimated fair value and gross realized gains or losses upon the sale of cost method investments are included in other income (expense), net, in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations. Fair value estimates are based on a review of the investees’ product development activities, historical financial results and projected discounted cash flows. The Company includes cost method investments in deferred charges and other assets in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Revenue Recognition. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the fees are fixed or determinable, the product or service has been delivered and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company considers the terms of each arrangement to determine the appropriate accounting treatment.
Education revenues. Tuition revenue is recognized ratably over the period of instruction as services are delivered to students, net of any refunds, corporate discounts, scholarships and employee tuition discounts. At KTP and International divisions, estimates of average student course length are developed for each course, and these estimates are evaluated on an ongoing basis and adjusted as necessary. Online access revenue is recognized ratably over the period of access. Course material revenue is recognized over the same period as the tuition or online access, if related, or when the products are delivered, if not related. Other revenues, such as student support services, are recognized when the services are provided.
KHE, through the Kaplan Commitment program, provides first-time undergraduate students with a risk-free trial period. Under the program, KHE monitors academic progress and conducts assessments to help determine whether students are likely to be successful in their chosen course of study. Students who withdraw or are subject to dismissal during the risk-free trial period do not incur any significant financial obligation. The Company does not recognize revenues related to coursework until the students complete the risk-free period and decide to continue with their studies, at which time the fees become fixed or determinable.