balances deemed uncollectible against the allowance for doubtful accounts following the passage of a certain period of time, or generally when the account is turned over for collection to an outside collection agency.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. The Company has a significant amount of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets that are reviewed at least annually for possible impairment.
As of December 31
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets
Percentage of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets to total assets
The Company performs its annual goodwill and intangible assets impairment test as of November 30. Goodwill and other intangible assets are reviewed for possible impairment between annual tests if an event occurred or circumstances changed that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit or other intangible assets below its carrying value.
The Company tests its goodwill at the reporting unit level, which is an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. The Company initially performs an assessment of qualitative factors to determine if it is necessary to perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test. The Company quantitatively tests goodwill for impairment if, based on its assessment of the qualitative factors, it determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, or if it decides to bypass the qualitative assessment. The quantitative goodwill impairment test compares the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. An impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.
The Company had 14 reporting units as of December 31, 2017. The reporting units with significant goodwill balances as of December 31, 2017, were as follows, representing 85% of the total goodwill of the Company:
As of November 30, 2017, in connection with the Company’s annual impairment testing, the Company decided to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment process at all of the reporting units. The Company’s policy requires the performance of a quantitative impairment review of the goodwill at least once every three years. The Company used a discounted cash flow model, and, where appropriate, a market value approach was also utilized to supplement the discounted cash flow model to determine the estimated fair value of its reporting units. The Company made estimates and assumptions regarding future cash flows, discount rates, long-term growth rates and market values to determine each reporting unit’s estimated fair value. The methodology used to estimate the fair value of the Company’s reporting units on November 30, 2017, was consistent with the one used during the 2016 annual goodwill impairment test.
The Company made changes to certain of its assumptions utilized in the discounted cash flow models for 2017 compared with the prior year to take into account changes in the economic environment, regulations and their impact on the Company’s businesses. The key assumptions used by the Company were as follows:
Expected cash flows underlying the Company’s business plans for the periods 2018 through 2022 were used. The expected cash flows took into account historical growth rates, the effect of the changed economic outlook at some of the Company’s businesses, industry challenges and an estimate for the possible impact of any applicable regulations.
Cash flows beyond 2022 were projected to grow at a long-term growth rate, which the Company estimated between 1% and 3% for each reporting unit.
The Company used a discount rate of 10.0% to 22.5% to risk adjust the cash flow projections in determining the estimated fair value.
The fair value of each of the reporting units exceeded its respective carrying value as of November 30, 2017.