consolidated interest coverage ratio of at least 3.5 to 1.0 based upon the ratio of consolidated adjusted EBITDA to consolidated interest expense as determined pursuant to the Credit Agreement.
On July 14, 2016, Kaplan entered into a credit agreement (the Kaplan Credit Agreement) among Kaplan International Holdings Limited, as borrower, the lenders party thereto, HSBC BANK PLC as Facility Agent, and other agents party thereto. The Kaplan Credit Agreement provides for a four-year credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of £75 million. Borrowings bear interest at a rate per annum of LIBOR plus an applicable interest rate margin between 1.25% and 1.75%, in each case determined on a quarterly basis by reference to a pricing grid based upon the Company’s total leverage ratio. The Kaplan Credit Agreement requires that 6.66% of the outstanding aggregate amount of the loan be repaid on the first three anniversaries of funding, with the remaining balance due on July 1, 2020. The Kaplan Credit Agreement contains terms and conditions, including remedies in the event of a default by the Company, typical of facilities of this type and requires the Company to maintain a leverage ratio of not greater than 3.5 to 1.0 and a consolidated interest coverage ratio of at least 3.5 to 1.0 based upon the ratio of consolidated adjusted EBITDA to consolidated interest expense as determined pursuant to the Kaplan Credit Agreement.
On July 25, 2016, Kaplan borrowed £75 million under the Kaplan Credit Agreement. On the same date, Kaplan entered into an interest rate swap agreement with a total notional value of £75 million and a maturity date of July 1, 2020. The interest rate swap agreement will pay Kaplan variable interest on the £75 million notional amount at the three-month LIBOR, and Kaplan will pay the counterparties a fixed rate of 0.51%, effectively resulting in a total fixed interest rate of 2.01% on the outstanding borrowings at the current applicable margin of 1.50%. The interest rate swap agreement was entered into to convert the variable rate British pound borrowing under the Kaplan Credit Agreement into a fixed rate borrowing. The Company provided a guarantee on any borrowings under the Kaplan Credit Agreement. Based on the terms of the interest rate swap agreement and the underlying borrowing, the interest rate swap agreement was determined to be effective and thus qualifies as a cash flow hedge. As such, changes in the fair value of the interest rate swap are recorded in other comprehensive income on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets until earnings are affected by the variability of cash flows.
On May 24, 2017, Moody’s affirmed the Company’s credit ratings, but revised the outlook from Stable to Negative.
The Company’s current credit ratings are as follows:
Standard & Poor’s
During 2017 and 2016, the Company had average borrowings outstanding of approximately $493.2 million and $443.9 million, respectively, at average annual interest rates of approximately 6.3% and 6.7%, respectively. The Company incurred net interest expense of $27.3 million and $32.3 million, respectively, during 2017 and 2016.
The Company is evaluating its long-term financing needs and in 2018 may refinance all or part of its unsecured $400.0 million notes outstanding due February 1, 2019.
At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had working capital of $857.2 million and $1,052.4 million, respectively. The Company maintains working capital levels consistent with its underlying business requirements and consistently generates cash from operations in excess of required interest or principal payments.
The Company’s net cash provided by operating activities, as reported in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, was $268.1 million in 2017, compared to $261.3 million in 2016.
In July 2016, Kaplan International Holdings Limited (KIHL) entered into an agreement with University of York International Pathway College LLP (York International College) to loan York International College £25 million over the next 18 months, to construct an academic building in the U.K. to be used by the College. York International College is a limited liability partnership joint venture between Kaplan York Limited (a subsidiary of Kaplan International Colleges U.K. Limited) and a subsidiary of the University of York, that operates a pathways college. The loan will be repayable over 25 years at an interest rate of 7%, and the loan is guaranteed by the University of York. While there is no strict requirement to make annual principal and interest payments, interest will be rolled up and accrue interest at 7% if no such payments are made. The loan becomes due and payable if the partnership agreement with KIHL is terminated. In the second half of 2016, KIHL advanced approximately £11.0 million to York International College. In 2017, an additional £5.0 million was advanced to York International College.
The Company expects to fund its estimated capital needs primarily through existing cash balances and internally generated funds and, to a lesser extent, borrowings under its revolving credit facility. In management’s opinion, the Company will have ample liquidity to meet its various cash needs in 2018.