4,726 options exercised during 2016. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during 2016 was $1.2 million; a tax benefit from these stock option exercises of $0.5 million was realized. There were 40,527 options exercised during 2015. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during 2015 was $19.5 million; a tax benefit from these option exercises of $7.8 million was realized.
During 2017 and 2015, the Company granted 2,000 and 24,742 options at an exercise price above the fair market value of its common stock at the date of grant, respectively. All other options granted during 2015 were at an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the Company’s common stock at the date of grant. The weighted average grant-date fair value of options granted during 2017 and 2015 was $120.47 and $155.00, respectively. No options were granted during 2016.
The fair value of options at date of grant was estimated using the Black-Scholes method utilizing the following assumptions:
Expected life (years)
The Company also maintains a stock option plan at Kaplan. Under the provisions of this plan, options are issued with an exercise price equal to the estimated fair value of Kaplan’s common stock, and options vest ratably over the number of years specified (generally four to five years) at the time of the grant. Upon exercise, an option holder may receive Kaplan shares or cash equal to the difference between the exercise price and the then fair value.
At December 31, 2017, a Kaplan senior manager holds 7,206 Kaplan restricted shares. The fair value of Kaplan’s common stock is determined by the Company’s compensation committee of the Board of Directors, and in January 2018, the committee set the fair value price at $1,500 per share. During 2015, 2,500 options were awarded to a Kaplan senior manager at a price of $1,180 that would have vested over a four-year period. No options were awarded during 2017 and 2016; no options were exercised during 2017, 2016 or 2015; and due to 2015 forfeitures, there were no options outstanding at December 31, 2017.
Kaplan recorded stock compensation expense of $1.2 million and $0.6 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively, and a credit of $1.8 million in 2015. At December 31, 2017, the Company’s accrual balance related to the Kaplan restricted shares totaled $10.8 million. There were no payouts in 2017, 2016 or 2015.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share. The Company’s unvested restricted stock awards contain nonforfeitable rights to dividends and, therefore, are considered participating securities for purposes of computing earnings per share pursuant to the two-class method. The diluted earnings per share computed under the two-class method is lower than the diluted earnings per share computed under the treasury stock method, resulting in the presentation of the lower amount in diluted earnings per share. The computation of earnings per share under the two-class method excludes the income attributable to the unvested restricted stock awards from the numerator and excludes the dilutive impact of those underlying shares from the denominator.